TPX is manufactured in various facilities throughout the United States, including Georgia and Indiana. Nclear’s corporate headquarters are located in Atlanta Georgia. This facility contains Nclear’s administrative offices, central laboratory, application engineering division and field services department.
Based on our testing, we utilize an ~18% efficacy rate for P removal. For example: 1.0 gram of TPX™ should remove 0.18 grams of P (e.g. 100 lbs. of TPX™ would remove ~18 lbs. of P). Competing and/or enhancing ions may increase or decrease this efficacy, therefore we recommend a laboratory analysis be conducted on each water source.

The raw chemical is manufactured as a powder; however, it can be produced into a slurry up to 25% solution (w/w).

No, it does not require other coagulants; however, some applications have proven to work better with the addition of a small amount of polymer. Both cationic and anionic polymers can be utilized, depending on the application.
Yes, TPX™ exhibits both adsorptive and coagulative properties. Beside PO4 removal, TPX™ has successfully reduced BOD, COD, TSS, and TKN levels, as well as certain metals in some water samples under certain conditions.
Typically, the optimal effective pH is 8-9 SU. This coincides with the ideal pH range for hydroxyapatite formation. However, we have also had success at both higher and lower pH’s. A neutral pH seems to have the least favorable results.
The ion that seems to accelerate the reaction the most is free calcium. For the adsorptive reaction of P with TPX™, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) is the most preferred P species. The coagulative properties of TPX™ work in many situations to remove organic P as well as polyphosphates. Ions that can act as inhibitors are aluminum, fluoride (in high levels), sulfate (in high levels), and carbonate ions.
This is dependent upon contact time (more time is preferential); however, the reaction happens very fast… within minutes.
We typically recommend 30-minutes of contact time for jar testing; however, with good mixing the reaction can take place much quicker.
The bond between the PO4 ion and the TPX™ nanocrystals is very strong. Once formed, very low pH (i.e.~ 2.5 SU) is required to break the bond.
We have not experienced a reversal in the bond with changing time, pressure, or temperature. Based on our testing of TPX™ and the adsorption bond formed, it seems highly unlikely that it would be reversed under these influences.
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